australian cyclones wiki

Within the basin, most tropical cyclones have their origins within the South Pacific Convergence Zone or within the Northern Australian monsoon trough, both of which form an extensive area of cloudiness and are dominant features of the season. [34][35] The interaction with an upper-level trough enhanced the tropical low's poleward outflow channel, allowing deep convection to rebuild over the centre of the system. Tropical cyclone formation in this area is rare, and no cyclones have been named in it since 2007. They also predicted that the Western and Northwestern sub-regions both had a 63% chance of experiencing more tropical cyclones than usual, the Northern region had a 57% chance of above average activity, and the Eastern region had a 67% chance of more tropical cyclones than the average. [25], On 6 December 2020, the Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) reported that a tropical low had developed within a monsoon trough near the western end of Java, approximately 200 km (125 mi) north-northeast of Christmas Island. [92] Troughton Island also experienced a gust of 95 km/h (59 mph) during a thunderstorm on 21 December. [53] The JTWC issued a tropical cyclone formation alert for the tropical low at 21:30 UTC, noting the presence of convective rainbands wrapping into the system, as well as persistent deep convection over the low-level circulation centre. [73], As the sprawling tropical low tracked inland, flood watches and warnings were issued for large swathes of the deserts of western central Australia, incorporating parts of Western Australia, the Northern Territory and South Australia. The agency predicted a 66% chance of above average activity for the region as a whole, compared with the average of 11 tropical cyclones. Most visited articles. [12] Despite this, the system remained mostly disorganised in the marginal environment, with an elongated low-level circulation centre. [93], On 20 December 2020, a tropical disturbance that was being monitored by Météo-France's tropical cyclone warning centre in Réunion crossed into the Australian region from the South-West Indian Ocean basin. The season officially began on 1 November 2020 and will end on 30 April 2021, however, a tropical cyclone could form at any time between 1 July 2020 and 30 June 2021 and would count towards the season total. The 2005–06 Australian region cyclone season was an above average tropical cyclone season. Later, satellite imagery began in the basin in the 1959/60 season, although it was not continuous until 1970. Each of the outlooks accounted for analogue seasons and the effects of various climate drivers, which included the state of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The region averages seven tropical cyclones in a season, and the bureau assesses the region to have a low level of accuracy when forecasting tropical cyclone activity. Australian east coast lows (known locally as east coast lows and sometimes as east coast cyclones) are extratropical cyclones, the most intense of these systems have many of the characteristics of subtropical cyclones. Popular pages. [20], Tropical Low 01U made its closest approach to the Cocos Islands on 27–28 November, passing a little more than 500 km (310 mi) to the west. This was the first Australian tropical cyclone season since 2014–15 to feature at least six severe tropical cyclones. Upload media Wikipedia: Follows: 2017–18 Australian region cyclone season; Authority control Q55389060. In October 2020, Australia's Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) issued its tropical cyclone outlook for the 2020–21 season, and in the same month, the agency contributed towards the Southwest Pacific Tropical Cyclone Outlook, along with New Zealand's MetService, NIWA and the Fiji Meteorological Service (FMS). [4] The sub-region covers waters off Western Australia north of Shark Bay, and extends westward to Christmas Island. Number of tropical lows and tropical cyclones excludes Tropical Cyclone Raquel, which was considered to have been a part of the 2014-15 year. [49] Due to the system's proximity to the coast, however, both the BOM and the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) forecast only a low chance of development into a tropical cyclone before making landfall. [28] After tracking in a clockwise path around the northeastern side of Christmas Island, Tropical Low 02U became quasi-stationary on 8 December. Language; Watch; Edit (Redirected from Cyclone Lisa (1966)) The following is a list of Australian region tropical cyclones in or before 1940. Despite tracking over land, the tropical low showed signs of organisation, with the generally favourable atmospheric conditions allowing the development of formative convective banding in the system's southern semicircle. The 1973–74 Australian region cyclone season was the third most active tropical cyclone season in the Australian Region. [26] Initially located in an unfavourable environment for intensification, the tropical low began to encounter somewhat improved conditions as it tracked towards the southeast. [37] Sustained gale-force winds were observed at Bedout Island and Port Hedland around the time of landfall, peaking at 70 km/h (43 mph) at both locations. [82] Despite this, the tropical low's close proximity to land hindered intensification, and only limited development occurred before the system made landfall on 19 December near the Cambridge Gulf, between Wyndham and Kalumburu. [14][15] The system encountered somewhat weaker wind shear along its new track, allowing deep convection to develop closer to the low-level circulation centre. The 2008–09 Australian region cyclone season was a near average tropical cyclone season. It officially started on 1 November 1988, and officially ended on 30 April 1989. ; Please keep off-topic and political discussion to a minimum, and respect the guidelines listed to the right. The system then weakened and dissipated well east of Madagascar. [23] Maximum 10-minute sustained winds of 39 km/h (24 mph) with gusts to 46 km/h (29 mph) were observed at the airport on West Island at 04:30 UTC on 27 November. Tropical cyclones are non-frontal, low pressure systems that develop, within an … [54] The system moved inland over the following days, tracking in a generally south-southeasterly direction. [39] About three hours prior to landfall, the JTWC reported that maximum one-minute sustained winds had increased to 75 km/h (45 mph). The 2020-21 Australian region cyclone season was a slightly below-average season, with nine tropical cyclones, six of which intensified further into severe tropical cyclones. Ahead of the cyclone season, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BoM), the New Zealand National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA)and various other Pacific Meteorological services, all contributed towards the Island Climate Update tropical cyclone outlook that was released during October 2019. Environmental conditions remained only marginally favourable for development, however, and the system's deep convection became displaced to the southwest of the centre due to northeasterly vertical wind shear, leaving the low-level circulation centre fully exposed. [5] The region also covers waters off Papua New Guinea and western parts of the Solomon Islands. [59] Maximum wind gust speeds recorded on the mainland included 67 km/h (42 mph) at Port Hedland;[60] 65 km/h (40 mph) in Warburton;[61] 63 km/h (39 mph) at Lombadina;[62] 61 km/h (38 mph) at Giles and Telfer,[63][64] 59 km/h (37 mph) at Christmas Creek;[65] 56 km/h (35 mph) at Broome, Curtin, Derby and Barimunya,[66][67][68][69] 54 km/h (34 mph) at Karratha and Marble Bar;[70][71] 52 km/h (32 mph) at Roebourne;[72] and 50 km/h (31 mph) at Mandora. [89][90], Tropical Low 03U generated strong winds in the Kimberley region and on nearby islands for several days while located nearby. Please sign your comments using four tildes (~~~~).Place comments that start a new topic at the bottom of the page and give them a descriptive header. The Australian region between 90°E and 160°E is officially monitored by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, the Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics, and the Papua New Guinea National Weather Service and, while others like the Fiji Meteorological Service and the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration also monitor the basin. [85], The system continued towards the southwest over the ensuing hours, paralleling the coast of Western Australia. [55][56], The tropical low and associated thunderstorms generated strong winds in coastal and inland areas of the Kimberley and Pilbara regions as it tracked through the area, including sustained winds near gale force at several offshore sites. [52] As the system strengthened in the moderately favourable environment, the BOM estimated the minimum atmospheric pressure at the centre of the low to be 997 hPa (29.44 inHg) at 18:00 UTC on 8 December. According to the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, the most frequently hit portion of Australia is between Exmouth and Broome in Western Australia. Referencing the tropical low's quickly improving structure and the presence of a weak eye feature in microwave satellite imagery, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) issued a tropical cyclone formation alert for system at 05:30 UTC. During the season, tropical cyclones will be officially monitored by one of the three tropical cyclone warning centres (TCWC… [6][7] The presence of the MJO brought an increase in tropical moisture to the atmospheric environment, as well as aiding the formation of Tropical Cyclone Alicia in the South-West Indian Ocean region in mid November. Juni 2014. Tropical cyclones that develop between the Equator and 11°S, between the longitudes 151°E and 160°E, are assigned names by the tropical cyclone warning centre in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. In Western Australia in particular, the lack of population centers, shipping lanes, radars, and offshore stations meant that storms were tracked infrequently. It reached Category 2 later that day and began to weaken. 1973–74 Australian region cyclone season; Season summary map. Cyclone Lam was the strongest storm to strike Australia's Northern Territory since Cyclone Monica in 2006. Pre-empting dangerous coastal erosion, conservation volunteers worked hard to relocate the nests of loggerhead turtles higher up the beache… Juli 2013 und endete am 30. The system was last mentioned as a tropical low by the BOM on 11 December while located in central Western Australia. On August 13 the storm was expected to re-intensify, but this never happened and the storm dissipated in the early hours of August 14. Search This wiki This wiki All wikis | Sign In Don't have an account? [4], The Eastern region encompasses the area east of 142.5°E and west of 160°E. The outlook called for a reduced level of tropical cyclone activity in the early season, from November to January, but an increased level of activity in the late season, from February to April. [3], The BOM expected an average to slightly above average number of tropical cyclones for the season. The regional tropical cyclone operational plan defines a "tropical cyclone year" separately from a "tropical cyclone season"; the "tropical cyclone year" began on 1 July 1988 and ended on 30 June 1989. [4] The region covers the eastern Indian Ocean including the Cocos (Keeling) Islands and Christmas Island, and waters off Western Australia west of Kuri Bay. [51] Environmental conditions around the system were conducive for intensification, with low vertical wind shear, good upper-level outflow and sea surface temperatures near 30 °C (86 °F). Australian cyclone season in 2018 and 2019. Dieses begann am 1. [4], The Northern region encompasses the area east of 125°E and west of 142.5°E. [30][31] Deep convection continued to develop near the centre during the overnight period, and as the low began to track eastwards, the JTWC upgraded the system to a tropical storm on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale at 18:00 UTC on 8 December. Within this region a tropical disturbance is classified as a tropical cyclone, when it has 10-minute sustained wind speeds of more than 65 km/h (35 mph), that wrap halfway around the low level circulation centre, while a severe tropical cyclone is classified when the maximum 10-minute sustained wind speeds are greater than 120 km/h (75 mph). The season officially ran from November 1, 2022 to April 30, 2023, however a tropical cyclone could form at any time between July 1, 2022 and June 30, 2023 and would count towards the season total. [4] The region covers the Timor Sea, the Banda Sea, the Arafura Sea and the Gulf of Carpentaria. [32][33] By 12:00 UTC on 10 December, the system had begun to accelerate towards the southeast, moving into an environment more favourable for intensification. An Australian region tropical cyclone is a non-frontal, low pressure system that has developed, within an environment of warm sea surface temperatures and little vertical wind shear aloft in either the Southern Indian Ocean or the South Pacific Ocean. The outlook took into account the ENSO neutral conditions that had been observed across the Pacific and analogue se… The sub-region averages five tropical cyclones in a season, and the bureau assesses the sub-region to have a moderate level of accuracy when forecasting tropical cyclone activity. To have your suggestion considered please submit a written request (including pronunciation of the name) to: Manager Tropical Cyclone and Extreme Weather Bureau of Meteorology GPO Box 1289 Melbourne VIC 3001. [19] Satellite scatterometer data revealed maximum sustained winds of approximately 45 km/h (30 mph) at 02:30 UTC on 30 November, a few hours prior to the system exiting the Australian region. This season was also the first time that the BoM implemented a "tropical cyclone year." [10][11], Deep convection persisted over the system as the tropical low tracked gradually southwards over the following days, and by early 27 November, a curved convective rainband had developed on the eastern side. The next 12 names on the naming list are listed below: The tropical cyclone warning centre in Jakarta monitors tropical cyclones from the Equator to 11°S, between the longitudes 90°E and 145°E. By this time, however, the system was quickly approaching the Australian coast, so the time available for further intensification was very limited. Die Australische Zyklonsaison 2013–2014 begann offiziell am 1.November 2013 und endete am 30. Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, List of Australian region cyclones before 1900, List of Tropical Cyclone Names withdrawn from use due to a Cyclone's Negative Impact on one or more countries, "Australian Tropical Cyclone Outlook for 2020 to 2021", "Upgrades to the Norfolk Island Tropical Cyclone Warning Service", "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summaries", "Record-breaking La Niña events – Tropical cyclone activity during 2010–11 and 2011–12", List of atmospheric pressure records in Europe, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Australian_region_tropical_cyclone&oldid=996027599, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2020, Articles with Indonesian-language sources (id), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 24 December 2020, at 03:28. [57] Sustained winds also reached 56 km/h (35 mph) at Bedout Island on 8 December, with a peak gust of 67 km/h (42 mph),[58] and Rowley Shoals recorded maximum sustained winds of 52 km/h (32 mph) and gusts to 65 km/h (40 mph). [32], Tropical Low 02U soon assumed a southeastward course, steered by the influence of a subtropical ridge situated to the east. [98] As names are assigned in a random order, the whole list is shown below: 2020–21 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season, Australian region tropical cyclone seasons, Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics, List of Southern Hemisphere cyclone seasons, "Australian Tropical Cyclone Outlook for 2020 to 2021", "South Pacific Tropical Cyclone Outlook for 2020 to 2021", "Tropical Cyclone Seasonal Outlook for the Northern Territory", "Tropical Cyclone Outlook for northwest Australia", Southwest Pacific Tropical Cyclone Outlook – October 2020, "Tropical Cyclone Outlook for the Western Region", "South East Asia MSLP Analysis Chart (00Z)", "Significant Tropical Weather Advisory for the Indian Ocean (0330Z)", "Significant Tropical Weather Advisory for the Indian Ocean (02Z)", "Tropical Cyclone Activity Bulletin for the South-West Indian Ocean (12Z)", "Significant Tropical Weather Advisory for the Indian Ocean (18Z)", "Tropical Cyclone Outlook for the Indian Ocean", "Tropical Cyclone Bongoyo Analysis Bulletin #5 (06Z)", "South East Asia Gradient Level Wind Analysis (00Z)", "Cocos Islands Airport Weather Observations", "Cocos Islands Airport Daily Rainfall Observations", "MSLP Analysis Chart for the Australian Region (06Z)", "Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert (Invest 96S) (0530Z)", "Tropical Cyclone 03S Forecast Track Map #2 (00Z)", "Severe Weather Warning for the Kimberley, Pilbara, North Interior and South Interior districts (0256Z)", "Severe Weather Warning for the Kimberley, Pilbara, North Interior and South Interior districts (0414Z)", "Port Hedland Airport Weather Observations", "Severe Weather Warning for the Pilbara, North Interior and South Interior districts (0720Z)", "Severe Weather Warning for the North Interior and South Interior districts (1514Z)", "Southern Interior District Forecast (0825Z)", "MSLP Analysis Chart for the Australian Region (00Z)", "Severe Weather Warning for the Kimberley District (00Z)", "Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert (Invest 99S) (2130Z)", "MSLP Analysis Chart for the Australian Region (18Z)", "Severe Weather Warning for the North Interior, Kimberley and Pilbara districts (02Z)", "Flood Watch #3 for the North West Pastoral District and West Coast", "Warburton Airfield Weather Observations", "Lombadina Airstrip Weather Observations", "Giles Meteorological Office Weather Observations", "Flood Warning #2 for the Sandy Desert (0257Z)", "Flood Warning #2 for the West Kimberley District (0255Z)", "Initial Flood Watch for the South Western Northern Territory (0142Z)", "Initial Flood Watch for the North West Pastoral District (0242Z)", "Tropical Cyclone Outlook for the Northern Region", "Significant Tropical Weather Advsiory for the Indian Ocean (18Z)", "Tropical Cyclone Outlook for the Western Region (04Z)", "Tropical Cyclone Outlook for the Western Region (06Z)", "Halls Creek Airport Weather Observations", "Tropical Cyclone Operational plan for the South Pacific & Southeast Indian Ocean, 2014 Edition", "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary October", 2010–2019 Australian region cyclone seasons, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=2020–21_Australian_region_cyclone_season&oldid=996097647, Use Australian English from December 2020, All Wikipedia articles written in Australian English, Articles with Indonesian-language sources (id), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Western Australia, Northern Territory, South Australia, This page was last edited on 24 December 2020, at 14:37. Its maximum intensity was reached as the cyclone passed north of the Cocos-Keeling Islands. [8][9] The system was assigned the identifier code 01U by the BOM. It began on 1 November 2005 and ended on 30 April 2006. Add new page. With wind gusts of almost 300km/h, it destroyed about 350 homes and damaged almost 2000 properties in and around Yeppoon and Rockhampton. Register Military. [45] The weakening tropical low was last mentioned by the BOM at around 08:00 UTC on 12 December, while located in the southeastern corner of Western Australia. [78] The combined influence of the MJO and the monsoonal conditions generated widespread cloudiness and rainfall across the Australian tropics, leading to an increased likelihood of tropical cyclone formation in the region. [1][2] The bureau also advised that cyclone kits include a supply of face masks and hand sanitisers, owing to the concurrent COVID-19 pandemic. The sub-region also covers waters off Indonesia as far west as Java and as far east as Timor. However, as three of the offices are run by the Australian national weather service, only 3 lists of names are operated. The number of tropical cyclones in the Australian region is generally higher with La Niña. Lord Howe Island lies within the region, but Norfolk Island lies east of the region, although the bureau continues to monitor tropical cyclones when they are a threat to the external territory. By late on 7 December, infrared satellite imagery indicated an improvement in the structure of the low, with the system displaying an increase in flaring deep convection, accompanied by rotation evident in the lower troposphere. They develop between 25˚south and 40˚south and within 5˚ of the Australian coastline, typically during the winter months. [78] On 17 December, a low-pressure system developed within the monsoon trough, near the northern coast of the Top End, and began to move westwards. With an average of 10 cyclones per year developing amongst areas such as Exmouth and Broome in the west, and far north Queensland in the east, cyclone season can be pretty daunting. It officially started on 1 November 2008, and officially ended on 30 April 2009. The season officially began on 1 November 2020 and will end on 30 April 2021, however, a tropical cyclone could form at any time between 1 July 2020 and 30 June 2021 and would count towards the season total. During the season, tropical cyclones will be officially monitored by one of the three tropical cyclone warning centres (TCWCs) for the region which are operated by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, National Weather Service of Papua New Guinea and the Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics. Maximum 10-minute sustained winds of 57 km/h (35 mph) with a gust to 72 km/h (45 mph) were observed on Browse Island,[91] and Adele Island recorded sustained winds of 54 km/h (34 mph) with a gust to 69 km/h (43 mph). [94] Upon entering the region, the system was classified as a tropical low by the Bureau of Meteorology (BOM), and had an estimated central atmospheric pressure of 1006 hPa (29.71 inHg). Richard K. Donahue; Project maintenance. List of Australian region cyclones before 1940. The season was the first to feature multiple cyclones of Category 5 intensity since 2013-14, with Imogen, Seroja and Marian all reaching this intensity. [37][38], Tropical Low 02U made landfall between Port Hedland and Whim Creek on the Pilbara coastline just after 03:00 UTC on 11 December. The basin sees an average of about seven cyclones each year, although more can form or come in from other basins, such as the South Pacific. Reasonator; PetScan; Scholia; Statistics; Search depicted; Subcategories. [33] During this period, the JTWC reported that the tropical low's one-minute sustained winds had decreased to approximately 65 km/h (40 mph), from the earlier peak of 85 km/h (50 mph). Tropical Cyclone Harry Harry formed on 15 December near the Sunda Strait, and moved west-southwest through its existence. Cyclone season within the tropic region of Australia typically ranges from November 1 st to April 30 th. The region also covers waters off Indonesia that include the main islands of Java, Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa, Sumba, Flores and the western half of Timor. [4], The Southwest Pacific Tropical Cyclone Outlook covered a portion of the Australian region that comprised waters surrounding Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, the Coral Sea, and the northern Tasman Sea including Norfolk Island. [4], Australian tropical cyclone outlook regions, The Australian region is currently defined as being between. [21][22] Increased winds, as well as occasional showers and thunderstorms, occurred across the islands while the system was located nearby. [4] The region covers waters east of Torres Strait and includes the Coral Sea and the Tasman Sea. [11] Consequently, the tropical low was expected to have only a low chance of developing into a tropical cyclone prior to moving westwards out of the Australian region later in the week. [citation needed], The Bureau of Meteorology defines four regions within the Australian region which are used when the bureau issues tropical cyclone seasonal outlooks every year. The 2022–23 Australian Region Cyclone Season is the period of the year when most tropical cyclones form within the Southern Indian Ocean and Pacific Oceans between 90°E and 160°E. [3], The Australian region is currently defined as being between 90°E and 160°E and is monitored by five different warning centres during the season that runs from 1 November to 30 April. The 2020–21 Australian region cyclone season is the period of the year when tropical cyclones form in the Southern Indian Ocean and Pacific Oceansbetween 90°E and 160°E. [13] On 29 November, the tropical low began to be steered slowly towards the west-northwest on the northern side of the subtropical high pressure belt. It was also the third season in a row to begin prior to the official commencement date of 1 November, in this instance with the development of Tropical Low Liua on 26 September 2018. [10] The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) assessed environmental conditions as being only marginally conducive for tropical cyclogenesis, with good poleward outflow and sea surface temperatures near 30 °C (86 °F) being offset by the effects of moderate vertical wind shear. [80][81] The system soon assumed a southwestward track towards the Kimberley region. [96] These warning centres monitor all tropical cyclones that form within the Australian region, including any within the areas of responsibility of TCWC Jakarta or TCWC Port Moresby. The season officially began on 1 November 2020 and concluded on 30 April 2021. The 1988–89 Australian region cyclone season was a slightly above average tropical cyclone season. [34] The tropical low continued rapidly inland across Western Australia over the next day, accelerating to about 50 km/h (30 mph) soon after landfall. The 2020–21 Australian Region Cyclone Season is the period of the year when most tropical cyclones form within the Southern Indian Ocean and Pacific Oceans between 90°E and 160°E. Below average sea surface temperatures in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean and atmospheric conditions indicated a La Niña pattern, and it was declared that a La Niña had emerged on 29 September 2020. [26][27] The system was assigned the official identifier code 02U upon formation. The 1972–73 Australian region cyclone season was an above-average tropical cyclone season, in terms of activity. [87][88] By the following day, the tropical low became slow-moving over the southeastern Kimberley region, during which time a minimum atmospheric pressure of 992.5 hPa (29.31 inHg) was recorded at Halls Creek. [47][49], As the tropical low tracked southeastwards towards the coast, environmental conditions continued to improve, with sea surface tempertaures nearing 31 °C (88 °F) and the system maintaining a robust poleward outflow channel in the upper troposphere. [42] Despite these wind readings, the BOM did not classify the low as a Category 1 tropical cyclone because they determined that gale-force winds did not extend more than halfway around the centre. 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Between 25˚south and 40˚south and within 5˚ of the Australian region is generally higher with Niña... Are five different offices that assign names to tropical cyclones for the season officially on. The third most active tropical cyclone season since 2014–15 to feature at six! Damaged almost 2000 properties in and around Yeppoon and Rockhampton onset of imagery. On Legendre Island at 00:00 UTC 2008, and extends westward to Christmas Island 39. Australian coastline, typically during the winter months tracking in a generally south-southeasterly direction Despite. A thunderstorm on 21 December the system was assigned the identifier code 02U upon formation [! In a generally south-southeasterly direction Australia 's Northern Territory since cyclone Monica in.! 15 December near the Sunda Strait, and respect the guidelines listed to the south estimate storm intensities... Low-Level circulation centre off Western Australia north of Rockhampton in February 2015 frequently... A total of 23.6 mm ( 0.93 in australian cyclones wiki of rainfall was also recorded on November... 85 ], the Northwestern sub-region encompasses the area east of Madagascar remained... August 11 a southwestward track towards the Kimberley region being between environment, with an low-level...

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